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Dec. 5th, 2004 @ 03:21 pm (no subject)
“Size 6: The Western Women’s Harem”
from Scheherazade Goes West by Fatima Mernissi, a Moroccan feminist and professor at Mohammed V University, who grew up in an enclosed harem, unable to leave except once a week when she could walk, escorted and veiled, to the Hammam, or Turkish baths.


It was during my unsuccessful attempt to buy a cotton skirt in an American department store that I was told my hips were too large to fit into a size 6. That distressing experience made me realize how the image of beauty in the West can hurt and humiliate a woman as much as the veil does when enforced by the state police in extremist nations such as Iran, Afghanistan, or Saudi Arabia. Yes, that day I stumbled onto one of the keys to the enigma of passive beauty in Western harem fantasies. The elegant saleslady in the American store looked at me without moving from her desk and said that she had no skirt my size. “In this whole big store, there is no skirt for me?” I said. “You are joking.” I felt very suspicious and thought that she just might be too tired to help me. I could understand that. But then the saleswoman added a condescending judgment, which sounded to me like Imam fatwa. It left no room for discussion:

“You are too big!” she said.

“I am too big compared to what?” I asked, looking at her intently, because I realized that I was facing a critical cultural gap here.

“Compared to a size 6,” came the saleslady’s reply.

Her voice had a clear-cut edge to it that is typical of those who enforce religious laws. “Size 4 and 6 are the norm,” she went on, encouraged by my bewildered look. “Deviant sizes such as the one you need can be bought in special stores.”

That was the first time I had ever heard such nonsense about my size. In the Moroccan streets, men’s flattering comments regarding my particularly generous hips have for decades led me to believe that the entire planet shared their convictions. It is true that with advancing age, I have been hearing fewer and fewer flattering comments when walking around in the medina, and sometimes the silence around me in the bazaars is deafening. But since my face has never met with the local beauty standards, and I have often had to defend myself against remarks such as zirafa (giraffe), because of my long neck, I learned long ago not to rely too much on the outside world for my sense of self-worth. In fact, paradoxically, as I discovered when I went to Rabat as a student, it was the self-reliance that I had developed to protect myself against “beauty blackmail” that made me attractive to others. My male fellow students could not believe that I did not give a damn about what they thought about my body. “You know, my dear,” I would say in response to one of them, “all I need to survive is bread, olives, and sardines. That you think my neck is too long is your problem, not mine.”

In any case, when it comes to beauty and compliments, nothing is too serious or definite in the medina, where everything can be negotiated. But things seemed to be different in that American department store. In fact, I have to confess that I lost my usual self-confidence in the New York environment. Not that I am always sure of myself, but I don’t walk around the Moroccan streets or down the university corridors wondering what people are thinking about me. Of course, when I hear a compliment, my ego expands like a cheese soufflé, but on the whole, I don’t expect to hear much from others. Some mornings, I feel ugly because I am sick or tired; others, I feel wonderful because it is sunny out or I have written a good paragraph. But suddenly, in that peaceful American store that I entered triumphantly, as a sovereign costumer ready to spend money, I felt savagely attacked. My hips, until then the sign of a relaxed and uninhibited maturity, were suddenly being condemned as a deformity.

“And who decides the norm?” I asked the saleslady, in an attempt to regain some self-confidence by challenging the established rules. I never let others evaluate me, if only because I remember my childhood too well. In ancient Fez, which valued round-faced plump adolescents, I was repeatedly told that I was too tall, too skinny, my cheekbones were too high, my eyes were too slanted. My mother often complained that I would never find a husband and urged me to study and learn all that I could, from storytelling to embroidery, in order to survive. But I often retorted that since “Allah had created me the way I am, how could he be so wrong, Mother?” That would silence the poor woman for a while, because if she contradicted me, she would be attacking God himself. And this tactic of glorifying my strange looks as a divine gift not only helped me to survive in my stuffy city, but also caused me to start believing the story myself. I became almost self-confident. I say almost, because I realized early on that self-confidence is not a tangible and stable thing like a silver bracelet that never changes over the years. Self-confidence is like a tiny fragile light, which goes on and off. You have to replenish it constantly.

“And who says that everyone must be a size 6?” I joked to the saleslady that day, deliberately neglecting to mention size 4, which is the size of my 12-year-old niece.

“At that point, the saleslady suddenly gave me and anxious look. “The norm is everywhere, my dear,” she said. “It’s all over, in the magazines, on television, in the ads. You can’t escape it. There is Calvin Klein, Ralph Lauren, Gianna Versace, Giorgio Armani, Mario Valentino, Salvatore Ferragamo, Christian Dior, Yves Saint-Laurent, Christian Lacroix, and Jean-Paul Gaultier. Big department stores go by the norm.” She paused and then concluded, “If they sold size 14 or 16, which is probably what you need, they would go bankrupt.”

She stopped for a minute and then stared at me, intrigued. “Where on earth do you come from? I am sorry I can’t help you. Really, I am.” And she looked it too. She seemed, all of a sudden, interested, and brushed off another woman who was seeking her attention with a cutting, “Get someone else to help you, I’m busy.” Only then did I notice that she was probably my age, in her late fifties. But unlike me, she had the thin body of an adolescent girl. Her knee-length, navy-blue, Chanel dress had a white silk collar reminiscent of the subdued elegance of aristocratic French Catholic schoolgirls at the turn of the century. A pearl-studded belt emphasized the slimness of her waist. With her meticulously styled short hair and sophisticated makeup, she looked half my age at first glance.

“I come from a country where there is no size for women’s clothes,” I told her. “I buy my own material and the neighborhood seamstress or craftsman makes me the silk or leather skirt I want. They just take my measurements each time I see them. Neither the seamstress nor I know exactly what size my new skirt is. No one cares about my size in Morocco as long as I pay taxes on time. Actually, I don’t know what my size is, to tell you the truth.”

The saleswoman laughed merrily and said that I should advertise my country as a paradise for stressed working women. “You mean you don’t watch your weight?” she inquired, with a tinge of disbelief in her voice. And then, after a brief moment of silence, she added in a lower register, as if talking to herself: “Many women working in highly paid fashion-related jobs could lose their positions if they didn’t keep to a strict diet.”

Her words sounded so simple, but the threat they implied was so cruel that I realized for the first time that maybe “size 6” is a more violent restriction imposed on women than is the Muslim veil. Quickly I said goodbye so as not to make any more demands on the saleslady’s time or involve her in any more unwelcome, confidential exchanges about age-discriminatory salary cuts. A surveillance camera was probably watching us both.

Yes, I thought as I wandered off, I have finally found the answer to my harem enigma. Unlike the Muslim man, who uses space to establish male domination by excluding women from the public arena, the Western man manipulates time and light. He declares that in order to be beautiful, a woman must look fourteen years old. If she dares to look fifty, or worse, sixty, she is beyond the pale. By putting the spotlight on the female child and framing her as the ideal of beauty, he condemns the mature woman to invisibility. In fact, the modern Western man enforces Immanuel Kant’s nineteenth-century theories: To be beautiful, women have to appear childish and brainless. When a woman looks mature and self-assertive, or allows her hips to expand, she is condemned as ugly. Thus, the walls of the European harem separate youthful beauty from ugly maturity.

These Western attitudes, I thought, are even more dangerous and cunning than the Muslim ones because the weapon used against women is time. Time is less visible, more fluid than space. The Western man uses images and spotlights to freeze female beauty within an idealized childhood, and forces women to perceive aging—that normal unfolding of years—as a shameful devaluation. “Here I am, transformed into a dinosaur,” I caught myself saying aloud as I went up and down the rows of skirt in the store, hoping to prove the saleslady wrong—to no avail. This Western time-defined veil is even crazier than the space-defined one enforced by the Ayatollahs.

The violence embodied in the Western harem is less visible than in the Eastern harem because aging is not attacked directly, but rather masked as an aesthetic choice. Yes, I suddenly felt nor only very ugly but also quite useless in that store, where, if you had big hips, you were simply out of the picture. You drifted into the fringes of nothingness. By putting the spotlight on the prepubescent female, the Western man veils the older, more mature woman, wrapping her in shrouds of ugliness. This idea gives me the chills because it tattoos the invisible harem directly onto a woman’s skin. Chinese footbinding worked the same way: Men declared beautiful only those women who had small, childlike feet. Chinese men did not force women to bandage their feet to keep them from developing normally—all they did was to define the beauty ideal. In feudal China, a beautiful woman was the one who voluntarily sacrificed her right to unhindered physical movement by mutilating her own feet, and thereby proving that her main goal in life was to please men. Similarly, in the Western world, I was expected to shrink my hips into a size 6 if I wanted to find a decent skirt tailored for a beautiful woman. We Muslim women have only one month of fasting, Ramadan, but the poor Western woman who diets has to fast twelve months out of the year. “Quelle horreur,” I kept repeating to myself, while looking around at the American women shopping. Al those my age looked like youthful teenagers.

According to the writer Naomi Wolf, The ideal size for American models decreased sharply in the 1990s. “A generation ago, the average model weighed 8 percent less than the average American woman, whereas today she weighs 23 percent less. . . . The weight of Miss America plummeted, and the average weight of Playboy Playmates dropped from 11 percent below the national average in 1970 to 17 percent below it in 8 years.” The shrinking of the ideal size, according to Wolf, is one of the primary reasons for anorexia and other health-related problems: “Eating disorders rose exponentially, and a mass of neurosis was promoted that used food and weight to strip women of . . . a sense of control.”

Now, at last, the mystery of the Western harem made sense. Framing youth as beauty and condemning maturity is the weapon used against women in the West just as limited access to public space is the weapon used in the East. The objective remains identical in both cultures: to make women feel unwelcome, inadequate, and ugly.

The power of Western man resides in dictating what women should wear and how they should look. He controls the whole fashion industry, from cosmetics to underwear. The West, I realized, was the only part of the world where women’s fashion is a man’s business. In places like Morocco, where you design your own clothes and discuss them with craftsmen and –women, fashion is your own business. Not so in the West. As Naomi Wolf explains in The Beauty Myth, men have engineered a prodigious amount of fetish-like, fashion-related paraphernalia: “Powerful industries—the $33-billion-a-year diet industry, the $20-billion-a-year cosmetic industry, and the $7-billion pornography industry—have arisen from the capital made out of unconscious anxieties, and are in turn able, through their influence on mass culture, to use, stimulate, and reinforce the hallucination in a rising economical spiral.”

But how does the system function? I wondered. Why do women accept it?

Of all the possible explanations, I like that of the French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, the best. In his latest book, La Domination Masculine, he proposes something he calls, la violence symbolique”: “Symbolic violence is a form of power which is hammered directly on the body, and as if by magic, without any apparent physical constraint. But this magic operates only because it activates the codes pounded in the deepest layers of body.” Reading Bourdieu, I had the impression that I finally understood Western man’s psyche better. The cosmetic and fashion industries are only the tip of the iceberg, he states, which is why women are so ready to adhere to their dictates. Something else is going on on a far deeper level. Otherwise, why would women belittle themselves so spontaneously? Why, argues Bordieu, would women make their lives more difficult, for example, by preferring men who are taller or older than they are? “The majority of French women wish to have a husband who is older and also, which seems consistent, bigger as far as size is concerned,” writes Bordieu. Caught in the enchanted submission characteristic of the symbolic violence inscribed in the mysterious layers of the flesh, women relinquish what he calls “les signes ordinaries de la hiérarchie sexuelle,” the ordinary signs of sexual hierarchy, such as old age and a larger body. By so doing, explains Bordieu, women spontaneously accept the subservient position. It is this spontaneity Bourdieu describes as magic enchantment.

Once I understood how this magic submission worked, I became very happy the conservative Ayatollahs do not know about it yet. If they did, they would readily switch to its sophisticated methods, because they are so much more effective. To deprive me of food is definitely to deprive me of my thinking capabilities.

Both Naomi Wolf and Pierre Bordieu come the conclusion that insidious “body codes” paralyze Western women’s abilities to compete for power, even though access to education and professional opportunities seem wide open, because the rules of the game are so different according to gender. Women enter power games with so much of their energy deflected to their physical appearance that one hesitates to say that the playing field is level. “A cultural fixation on female thinness is not an obsession about female beauty,” explains Wolf. It is “an obsession about female obedience. Dieting is the most potent political sedative in women’s history; a quietly mad population is a tractable one.” Research, she contends, “confirmed what most women know too well—that concern with weight leads to a ‘virtual collapse of self-esteem and sense of effectiveness’ and that . . . ‘prolonged and periodic caloric restriction’ resulted in a distinctive personality whose traits are passivity, anxiety, and emotionality.” Similarly, Bourdieu, who focuses more on how this myth hammers its inscriptions onto the flesh itself, recognizes that constantly reminding women of their physical appearances destabilizes them emotionally because it reduces them to exhibited objects. “By confining women to the status of symbolical objects to be seen and perceives by the other, masculine domination . . . puts women in a state of constant physical insecurity. . . . They have to strive ceaselessly to be engaging, attractive, and available.” Being frozen into the passive position of an object whose very existence depends on the eyes of its beholder turns the educated modern Western women into a harem slave.

“I thank you, Allah, for sparing me the tyranny of the ‘size 6 harem.’” I repeatedly said to myself while seated on the Paris-Casablanca flight, on my way back home at last. “I am so happy that the conservative male elite does not know about it. Imagine the fundamentalists switching from the veil to forcing women to fit size 6.”

How can you stage a credible political demonstration and shout in the streets that your human rights have been violated when you cannot find the right skirt?
About this Entry
boheme
mistresselaura:
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From:retrospection_
Date:December 5th, 2004 08:54 pm (UTC)
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wow.
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From:suzycat
Date:December 5th, 2004 09:14 pm (UTC)
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Excellent. *runs to add to memories*

I can't believe the sales lady called her hips "deviant", though. I mean - how rude!
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From:raqsindira
Date:December 5th, 2004 09:56 pm (UTC)
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This just solidifies my admiration for Fatima Mernissi. Wow. Thanks for posting!
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From:badriyaz
Date:December 5th, 2004 11:13 pm (UTC)
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thanks so much for posting that--it's just brilliant!

signed,

full-hipped and proud
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From:prettypatil
Date:December 6th, 2004 03:19 am (UTC)
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Ditto that!
From:yesmyqueen
Date:December 6th, 2004 12:28 am (UTC)
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I'm glad to see an article like this and yet not...because Middle Eastern ladies seem to now have Western standards imposed upon them as well.

I think of the Middle Eastern pop stars and how gorgeous they are, and then I read about them having a ton of surgeries that made them that way--flawless and stick-thin, and then I don't know what to think.
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From:copper_pony
Date:December 6th, 2004 12:32 am (UTC)
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i'm not arguing with her conclusions (which aren't anything new) but i don't for one minute believe that conversation with the saleslady ever happened. what department store in this country is only going to have clothes up to size 6? a boutique like betsy johnson yeah maybe but not a department store. i don't know why it pisses me off that she made up that story in order to make her point but it does. women have a hard enough time as it is without other women lying to make it sound worse. am i totally off base? are there department stores out there afraid of going bankrupt by selling sizes 14 - 16? has a sales lady ever told you you were to fat for the clothes in her store? not in my experience.
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From:retrospection_
Date:December 6th, 2004 12:47 am (UTC)
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oh, i've been told i've been too fat to shop in a store. Until about 3 years ago the teen trend stores in my home town carried -3,-1,00, 0, 1,3,5,7 and *sometimes* 9. I remember the signs in store windows that proclaimed "Now Serving Sizes 9-15" it was a huge deal.

But i remember killing time at the mall and poking into a store like 579 or the rave and having the salewoman tell me that there probably wasn't anything in this store to "interest a girl of my size"

I'm 5"10 and about 135, for the record.
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From:__oni_no_kaze__
Date:December 6th, 2004 12:40 am (UTC)

DAMN...just DAMN...

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I must be some kind of weirdo, then...I like full-sized women. I'd be too scared of snapping a thin one in half! ^_^

ME: "Oh dear...it's another Pretzel Girl..."
MY FRIEND: "Pretzel Girl?!"
ME: "Yeah...you get too rough in bed and they might snap like a Pretzel!"

Skinny girls just don't take me there...mainly because (due to lack of meat on their bones) they have little or no curves, especially in 'the right places'. I've seen 30-year-old women with chests small enough to be 13...*winces*
This really spoke to me. DEATH TO THE SIZE 6 HAREM! VIVA LA HIPS! ^_^
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From:andalka
Date:December 6th, 2004 03:05 am (UTC)

Excuse me?!!!!

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Speaking for those of us who are thirty and the size of a thirteen year olds, we are just as much "outside the norm" as the larger woman. You may be trying to make larger women feel better, but I'm really sick of hearing nasty comments from people about something we smaller women can't control. My size is genetic. You don't have to like it, but you don't need to write insults in what's supposed to be a supportive community.
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From:kitzune
Date:December 6th, 2004 05:22 am (UTC)
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Speaking as a girl who is a size 6 (apparently) I am actually quite curvy. More curvy than I wish I was, but everyone else seems to like it. I also have a problem with my hips...yet I'm still a size 6! Perhaps it's just because I'm tiny as well. Who knows. What I can't believe is the author saying we women in America have less freedom than women in Islamic cultures. That's just upright bullshit. Whatever.
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From:spitphyre
Date:December 6th, 2004 06:16 am (UTC)
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Speaking as a girl who is a size 6 (apparently) I am actually quite curvy. More curvy than I wish I was, but everyone else seems to like it. I also have a problem with my hips...yet I'm still a size 6! Perhaps it's just because I'm tiny as well. Who knows.

Which is more than likely the case. I think what "smaller women" tend to forget is that it's not all "small women" in question, it's those who make themselves that way on purpose. Naturally "small women" usually look... normal. Human. Beautiful.

What I can't believe is the author saying we women in America have less freedom than women in Islamic cultures. That's just upright bullshit. Whatever.

And what you're saying is just as much bullshit.

Both are opinions founded upon the culture which you have been brought up within. Your views on what is right and fair have been tainted by an immersion in your society.

I'm personally sick of our culture's unfounded opinion that all middle eastern women are pathetic, chained prisoners who have no free will and are forced unwillingly into lives of pure submission. Further, I do fully agree that in the United States women are not as free as we would like to believe for many of the same reasons stated in this article, if not more. We're just brought up believing that we have all we want. So what if we can go bare our bodies in public and work in the "real" world? We still feel many constraints and bounds placed upon us in other less obvious was. (Not that I feel men are entirely free of this)

Perhaps her opinions aren't the only absolute truth (hence the term "opinion") but she does make a good point in a well thought out manner. Eating disorders and low self esteem are a major issue in our culture and marketing is a heavy contributor to such acts.
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From:asimaiyat
Date:December 6th, 2004 08:21 am (UTC)
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I love that book so much! Thanks for spreading the word.
From:misschemo
Date:December 6th, 2004 02:19 pm (UTC)
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thank you for posting this here... it gave me a lot of insight to the community and its members ; ]

From:thatheathergirl
Date:December 6th, 2004 02:34 pm (UTC)
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wow. powerful.
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From:sketchington
Date:December 6th, 2004 03:27 pm (UTC)

Just remember

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Most men like or at least can appreciate hips. The image/standard of the thin woman being the norm was created by gay men and catty straight women, none of which want relations beyond friendship. Trust the FOWs (fans of women; straight men, bi's, and lesbians). The catty store clerks, fashion designers, and entertainment reporters do not speak for us.
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From:medancer
Date:December 9th, 2004 06:33 am (UTC)

Re: Just remember

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I remember reading once that this look was created around the turn of the 20th century by designers - including the likes of Coco Chanel - so that the clothing buyers would look at the clothes, not the women modelling them.

Interesting, hm?
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From:lyrker
Date:December 6th, 2004 04:24 pm (UTC)
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In order to maintain youthful thin-ness, a woman has to train her body to accept that being hungry most of the time is okay. Your stomach shrinks eventually so that when you -do- eat, you never can eat more than half of what you're given.

It can be rough living in a society where a 30 year old woman has to choose between being desirable and hungry or undesirable and full. And unfortunately most women I know feel that if they can't achieve that slim Size 6 that they may as well give up trying at all. I know far too many beautiful ladies who think they are ugly and worthless because they're not 105 pounds. No amounting of telling them otherwise convinces them either because their world has told them time and again that they are. :(
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From:shanmonster
Date:December 6th, 2004 07:46 pm (UTC)
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I don't believe every thin woman over the age of 30 is that size due to starvation. Genetics and lifestyle play big factor. Although I'm no size six, I have a much lower BMI than the average person my age, and I eat whenever I'm hungry. Of course, I'm also far more physically active than just about anyone I know, so go figure.
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From:sweh
Date:December 6th, 2004 09:22 pm (UTC)

No hips

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The problem with a lot of "American" female clothing, at the moment, is that it's designed for women with no hips.

My girlfriend is somewhere around a size 10, but so many dresses fail to fit her properly because she has these wonderful curves, leading some well defined hips. Dresses either end up creasing up as they ride up onto the hips, or else skirts just fail to fit; "Straight lines!" she screams, seeing another nice looking skirt cut totally straight; "Don't these people know that women have hips?!"

And don't get her started on jeans...

With the acknowledgement that current American fashion trends are a little screwed up, that doesn't mean I agree with any single word about using fashion as a way of enforcing "the Western Harem". It should be noted that this fashion trend works both ways; men are also under fashion-attack. When I had a 42" waist, I couldn't find any fashionable clothes that would fit me. Now I'm a 36" and am at the upper end of the scale; it's still hard though!

If you're not one of the "beautiful people" then fashion designers don't care about you; male or female, it's all the same.
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From:saavik
Date:December 7th, 2004 02:12 am (UTC)

Nonsense

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Ms. Mernissi may think she is a feminist, but it sounds to me as if she has bought into the streotype of the 'Western woman'as an anorexic neurotic hook line & sinker. Why would she perpetuate this myth except perhaps as an opportunity to rant against another assumed aspect of Western degeneracy?
Every store I have ever gone into has a full line of fashionsfor women size 2 to size 16 or 18. Of course, if you frequent the shops that cater to the teeny bopper set, you'll have a problem with anything larger than a 12 (Le Chateau or La Senza Girl come to mind).
In fact, I have never _had to shop_ in specialty stores for "deviant" physiognomies even though I am 5'8" and weigh over 180 lbs.
The closest I ever came to a conversation like Ms. Mernissi described was in Nice, France in one of the more tourist-rappy boutiques. When I refused to buy a particularly clingy top because it showed all the wrong curves, the saleswoman suggested I invest in a solid foundation garment so that I could 'contain my large proportions' and wear the latest slinky fad. Needless to say, I did not immediately rush out of the store, desperately embarassed by the suggestion that I am not a size 6. I am no more a slave to the dictates of the latest fashion than anyone else I know.
I am a Western Feminist by virtue of being born female, and I am no one's slave, despite the fact that my clothing is off the rack, and not custom made(and no, I do not live in t-shirts or Mu-mus.)
I suggest that Ms. Mernissi would do well to consider the meaning of 'Feminism' in matters of more consequence than the latest clothing fads, or her own physical proportions.